2 edition of effects of local context on explicit and implicit memory in normal subjects. found in the catalog.
effects of local context on explicit and implicit memory in normal subjects.
Marja Helena Kates
Written in English
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||67|
that tap implicit and explicit memory, respectively. Con-sider, for example, the stem completion task, in which subjects are given three-letter word beginnings (e.g., TAB) and are asked to complete them with the first word that comes to mind; no reference is made to a prior study episode. Implicit memory is indicated when subjects. Previous research has found environmental context effects for both conceptual explicit and conceptual implicit memory (Parker, Gellatly, & Waterman, ). The research presented here challenges these findings on methodological grounds. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of context change on category-exemplar generation (conceptual implicit memory test) and category-cued recall (conceptual.
Across three experiments, PET scans were obtained while subjects performed different word-stem completion and FIXATION control tasks designed to study the functional anatomy of memory retrieval. During each of three different word-stem completion scans, word-stem cues were visually presented in uppercase letters. The RECALL task required explicit retrieval of study words presented prior to the. A. Fradera, M.D. Kopelman, in Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Explicit and Implicit Memory. Relative to explicit memory, implicit memory is generally much better preserved in ts show preserved perceptuo-motor skills, and respond appropriately to simple forms of classical conditioning (such as the eye-blink response).
of experimental manipulations have different effects on performance of implicit and explicit memory tests. Sec ond, extensive research with organic amnesic patients has revealed that implicit memory test performance can be entirely normal even when explicit remembering is se verely impaired. A third line of investigation has focused. Following administration of the word-rating task, all subjects completed five memory tests, three implicit (category association, tachistoscopic identification, and perceptual clarification) and two explicit (semantic-cued recall and graphemic-cucd recall), each bearing on a different subset of the list of previously presented target words.
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A recent within-subjects study showed that midazolam impaired explicit memory while leaving implicit memory intact in a sample of older children undergoing painful medical procedures (Pringle et.
Age effects on explicit and implicit memory Article (PDF Available) in Frontiers in Psychology September with 1, Reads How we measure 'reads'. Kathleen B. Mcdermott, in Encyclopedia of the Human Brain, II.B Measures. Implicit memory is measured in terms of priming, or the amount of change (often facilitation) observed on an implicit memory order to better understand how implicit memory works, psychologists have devised three main classes of implicit memory tests: perceptual implicit memory tests, conceptual implicit.
Reports of differential effects of age on explicit and implicit memory have led many to conclude that the two are driven by functionally distinct memory systems. If true, then preservation of implicit memory might open up significant opportunities to remediate cognitive decline, aiding such important real-life demands as acquiring face-name Cited by: In McKone and French (), implicit memory of healthy subjects was not sensitive to study-test mismatch in environmental context while explicit memory was.
This means that, in order to be fully. Age effects on explicit and implicit memory. Emma V. Ward. 1 *, Christopher J. Berry. and David R. Shanks. as evidence for distinct explicit and implicit learning/memory systems. PDF | On Jan 1,H. III roediger and others published Implicit memory in normal human subject | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate.
Implicit and Explicit Memory for New Associations in Normal and Amnesic Subjects Peter Graf and Daniel L. Schacter University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Two experiments examined whether repetition priming effects on a word completion task are influenced by new associations between unrelated word pairs that were.
Memory & Cognition /, 2/ (2), //55 The recency effect: Implicit learning with explicit retrieval. ALAN D. BADDELEY MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England and GRAHAM HITCH Lancaster University, Lancaster, England The recency effect in free recall features prominently in s'theorizing about short-term memory.
tinguished between two expressions of episodic memory: explicit and implicit (Schacter ). Explicit memory refers to conscious recollection of a past event, as exemplified by performance on recall and recognition tests.
By contrast, implicit memory refers to any effect of an event on subsequent experience, thought, or action.
People often focus more on the topic of explicit memory, but researchers are becoming increasingly interested in how implicit memory works and how it influences knowledge and behavior.
As any student can tell you, sometimes it takes a lot of work and effort to commit information to memory. Importantly for present purposes, the memory for context was implicit. Normal subjects were at chance for explicitly dis-criminating old displays from new displays in recognition tests presented at the end of each experimental session.
Thus, we can decouple conscious, explicit learning from con-textual, relational learning. A short-term implicit memory system beneficial for rapid target selection. Visual Cognition. ; 7 (5)– McKone E. Short Term implicit memory for words and nonwords. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition.
; 21 (5)– McKone E. The decay of short-term implicit memory: Unpacking lag. Memory. to obtain dissociations between implicit and explicit memory in normal subjects that are similar to those observed in amnesic patients.
Effects of encoding processes on implicit memory have also been ex-amined in conjunction with a phenomenon known as the generation effect--the observation that explicit memory for words that were gen.
Explicit memory (or declarative memory) is one of the two main types of long-term human memory, the other of which is implicit it memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of factual information, previous experiences, and concepts. Explicit memory can be divided into two categories: episodic memory, which stores specific personal experiences, and semantic memory, which.
Recognition memory refers to a basic form of memory retrieval that has been widely used in experimental psychology. It is assumed that recognition performance is based on two different processes (Yonelinas ; Rugg and Yonelinas ).One refers to a conscious or explicit process of recollection, where the person initially searches for qualitative information about the context in which the.
Because context-dependency is a defining characteristic of explicit memory, it is important to determine whether context-dependency as reflected, for instance, by environmental-context effects also characterizes implicit memory (McKone & French, ). A few such studies have been conducted and have produced conflicting results.
A–B: Number of repeated displays that generated a contextual cueing effect in the implicit search task for the nap and rest conditions. C–D: Number of repeated displays that yielded recognition in the explicit memory task. The grey values presented at the top of each graph indicate the number of participants that showed increased (“gain.
Experiment 2 assessed the effects of context change on word association (conceptual implicit memory test) and word associate cued recall (conceptual explicit memory test).
In both experiments, study-test changes in environmental context were found to influence performance only on tests of explicit memory.
explicit memory is revealed when performance on a task re- quires conscious recollection of previous experiences. Note that these are descriptive concepts that are primarily concerned with a person's psychological experience at the time of retrieval.
Ac- cordingl3, the concepts of implicit and explicit memory. Neither book mentions the effect of implicit (or unconscious) memory. To a researcher working in the field of human memory, this is a surprising omission - implicit memory is the hot topic of academic memory research, and it is impossible to find a textbook or journal on the subject of memory published in the last ten years that does not.Reliable effects for testing session and age group were obtained for explicit memory (verbal recall as well as frequency and recognition ratings), but not for implicit memory.
Typicality ratings, also obtained in this picture-clarification task, appeared more related to implicit than explicit memory.Evidence and current research Early research. Advanced studies of implicit memory began only in the s. In early research, subjects were presented with words under different conditions and were given two types of tests: recognition memory tests and perceptual identification tests.
These studies provided evidence that effects of memory on perceptual identification was independent of.